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In addition to the properties above, careful configuration of TLS can provide additional privacy-related properties such as forward secrecy, ensuring that any future disclosure of encryption keys cannot be used to decrypt any TLS communications recorded in the past.TLS supports many different methods for exchanging keys, encrypting data, and authenticating message integrity (see § Algorithm below).Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now prohibited from use by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.Several versions of the protocols find widespread use in applications such as web browsing, email, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice over IP (Vo IP).In 2014, SSL 3.0 was found to be vulnerable to the POODLE attack that affects all block ciphers in SSL; and RC4, the only non-block cipher supported by SSL 3.0, is also feasibly broken as used in SSL 3.0.SSL 2.0 was prohibited in 2011 by RFC 6176, and SSL 3.0 was also later prohibited in June 2015 by RFC 7568.
All TLS versions were further refined in RFC 6176 in March 2011, removing their backward compatibility with SSL such that TLS sessions never negotiate the use of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) version 2.0.
TLS is a proposed Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard, first defined in 1999 and updated in RFC 5246 (August 2008) and RFC 6176 (March 2011).
It builds on the earlier SSL specifications (1994, 1995, 1996) developed by Netscape Communications Client-server applications use the TLS protocol to communicate across a network in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping and tampering.
As of January 2018 A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate, and indicates certain expected usages of that key.
This allows others (relying parties) to rely upon signatures or on assertions made by the private key that corresponds to the certified public key.